2. Materials and methods
Data were collected using the WBQ tool from in the area of Athens, Greece from 473 individuals aged 16–86 (42 ± 18 years) (221 males) in summer and from 511 individuals aged 16–86 (38 ± 20 years) (245 males) in winter, stratified by age and sex according to the Hellenic Statistical Authority . All volunteers were informed on the objectives of the study and the procedures involved and signed an informed consent. The retrieved data were confidential, and the wife Ningbo in China study followed the ethical considerations provided by The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki). The WBQ incorporates a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire validated to record energy intake against three-day diaries (p
Specifically, the newest WBQ will bring: (A) studies on the character of your own fellow member; (B) tape away from practices on period of the earlier in the day month out-of solid and you can liquid restaurants, h2o or drinks regarding a partial-decimal dining regularity survey (FFQ) of 58 snacks verified having quoting times consumption in addition to a lot more sugar and you can honey that is put into products; and you can (C) estimation regarding physical exercise using their the fresh new International Physical working out Survey (IPAQ) , which ideas duration of physical working out in the about three hobby membership (intense, moderate, light do so) otherwise sedentary criteria. The latest IPAQ could have been validated in the past due to the fact a corner-federal software for tape physical working out [20,21,22] also to imagine opportunity expenses.
The power and you will drinking water content off filed food and beverages are examined by using the Diet plan Study And additionally (Wadsworth Publishing Co Inc., Belmont, California, USA), and this uses constitution data on USDA Federal Mineral Databases and you can picked Greek food (we.elizabeth., mousakas, pastitsio, Greek natural yogurt, lentiles beans soup, several Greek pies, souvlaki, stuffed tomatoes) . Centered on overall opportunity intake and effort expenditure, opportunity harmony try examined also.
Inside research, “drinks” identifies fruit fruit juice otherwise packaged liquid 100% in the place of sugar posts, sugar-sweet drinks (SSDs) (fruits nectar with glucose, soft drinks which have sugar and energy/isotonic beverages), low calorie carbonated drinks, beverage and you can herbal infusions, milk (all kinds of whole milk, chocolates whole milk and you may cocoa take in), milkshake and you can sherbets, coffee and java drinks, and you may alcoholic beverages (alcohol, wines and all of types of liquor). “Drink energy intake (DEI)” means energy intake of products “complete energy consumption (TEI)” to times consumption away from the source and you may “energy intake from edibles” to help you times intake from strong and you will water dishes (age.grams., soups). This new contribution out of beverages organizations to help you overall energy consumption (studies regarding Malisova et al. 2013), exhibited while the overall intake of water (TWI), i.age., drinking water from drinks, water, good and you may liquid delicacies so when drink water intake (DWI), we.age., drinking water regarding drinks and you may liquid.
step three. Analytical Research
Email address details are shown because the imply ± sd into the generally speaking distributed variables and average (P25–P75) into the skewed of these. Normality was looked at making use of the probability–possibilities area (P–P spot) and you will histograms. Differences between men about your overall times consumption, opportunity away from beverages, energy regarding products, time expenses, energy balance, drinking habits, h2o out-of liquids and products, drinking water off products, liquid out-of liquid, liquids away from meals, liquids losses and you may water balance were assessed towards the separate sample t-decide to try towards the typically delivered variables and the Mann-Whittney U-try toward skewed of those. Likewise, differences when considering the fresh new five quartiles of your time away from drinks have been analyzed towards the one-means ANOVA F-try into the generally speaking delivered variables together with Kruskal-Wallis H Shot toward skewed of those. Relevance peak is actually lay on 5%. Correlations between the share away from beverages so you’re able to intake of water inside the family members so you’re able to times into the wintertime and summer was indeed examined of the Pearson’s otherwise Spearman’s relationship coefficients to possess generally speaking distributed or skewed details. All statistical analyses did using PASW Statistics 18 (SPSS Inc, il, IL, USA).